Decentralized Internet of Everything (IoE) networks are hugely important for cyberattacks because they can cut out from the system the infected part of the network. Having this capability reduces the damage cyberattack vectors can perform throughout the whole network, reducing contamination to its bare minimum.

Explaining cyberattack vectors can be defined as a path by which an attacker can access a computer or network and deliver a payload or a malicious outcome; this results in attack vectors allowing hackers to exploit system vulnerabilities and install different types of malware to launch cyberattacks.

Other possibilities that attack vectors offer the attackers are the means to exploit access to sensitive data, personally identifiable information (PII), and other data breaches. A circumstance with an average cost of over $3 million and a decentralized system can minimize potential attack vectors and thus, prevent data breaches.

There are many ways to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems, infrastructure, networks, operating systems, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices within the cyber attack vectors. These attack vectors can be split into two primary forms of procedures, known as passive or active attacks.

The first one, the passive, attempts to access or use information from the system but does not affect system resources, such as typosquatting or phishing attacks. The latter, the active, attempts to alter a system or affect its operation through malware, exploiting unpatched vulnerabilities, email spoofing, man-in-the-middle attacks, or ransomware.

What attack vectors are the most common?

Above, we have mentioned passive and active attack vectors and pointed out some; now, let’s present the most common cyber attacks in more detail.

Compromised Credentials

Cybercriminals use cyber vectors to access usernames and passwords and are, currently, the most common type of access credential. It is normal to find them exposed to data leaks, phishing scams, and malware. There are various types of technologies to act upon this problem that can help hinder them or reduce the risk, such as:

· Password managers: A computer program allows users to store, generate and manage their passwords for local applications and online services.
· Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an extra step added to the log-in process, e.g., a code sent to the user's smartphone or a fingerprint.
· Biometrics: Used to identify or authenticate a person using physical characteristics.

Weak Credentials

Using weak passwords, e.g., 1234 and reused passwords, is a vulnerability that can result in many data breaches. Organizations have to teach employees how to create secure passwords and invest in a password manager or a single sign-on tool to overcome this.

Malicious Insiders

As improbable as it may seem, malicious insiders are a problem, i.e., disgruntled employees. These can be part of the activators of a cyber vector by exposing private information or providing information about company-specific vulnerabilities to bad actors, or a rival company.

Ransomware

Ransomware is a form of extortion where data is deleted or encrypted, and to be able to reaccess this data, the ransom has to be paid; an example is the 2017 WannaCry.

Phishing

Phishing is a social engineering technique targeted through email, telephone, or text message by a cybercriminal to trick the user into providing sensitive data, credentials, or personally identifiable information (PII).

Brute Force

‍Brute force attacks are based on trial and error, a constant attack to gain access to an organization until one attack works; this could be by attacking:

· Weak:
        · Passwords.
        · Encryption.
· Phishing emails.
· Sending infected email attachments.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

DDoS are cyberattacks against networked resources like data centers, servers, or websites. The attacker floods the network resource with messages which cause it to slow down or even crash, making it inaccessible to users.

Trojans

This attack vector known as ‍Trojan horses is malware disguised as a legitimate program inserted in email attachments or fake software. By using this technique, the attacker misleads the user to click on the link and access the user’s system.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

XSS attacks are triggered using a website’s comment section to insert malicious code to impact the website's visitors. In most cases, the cybercriminal will embed a link to malicious JavaScript in a blog post's comment section.

Session Hijacking

‍Accessing a service online gives a computer a session key or cookie, a procedure that permits the user to reaccess the service without logging in again. This cookie can be hijacked and used by an attacker to access sensitive information.

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

‍This cyberattack is usually performed via public Wi-Fi networks that can be easily exploited to perform man-in-the-middle attacks. The end goal is to intercept traffic, allowing the attacker to relay communication, listen in, and modify what each party is saying.

Third and Fourth-Party Vendors

Outsourcing is a great way to free a company’s workforce from tasks that are not their expertise; this also means that the vendor used can pose a considerable cybersecurity risk to customers' data and proprietary data.

Acknowledging these dangers, which are constantly rising, makes it paramount for all businesses, institutions, nations, and individuals to provide their networks, computers, or operational systems with a secure stronghold. We consider the ever-growing IoT dependency within smart cities and houses and the industry, even-more-so.

Therefore, the upper layer of the Internet of Things, i.e., the Internet of Everything, requires to core its infrastructure within decentralization and to operate within walled gardens, which give privacy and security a massive stronghold when it comes to hackers trying to access the network via cyberattack vectors.

This perspective shows how Internet of Everything Corp (IoECorp) has designed a solution founded on a decentralized infrastructure. The Eden System is our offering, working on a well-designed edge platform that utilizes blockchain technology and a quantum-safe polymorphic encryption key structure. IoECorp’s Eden System functions inside walled data lakes, keeping the data flow always at a safe level.

Eden System’s security and privacy benefits

A genuinely decentralized architecture for a digitalization deployment, like IoE Corp’s Eden System, is a huge step towards gaining a secure private network. Some security and privacy benefits that our technology offers:

· Defense against distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) because Eden System is fully decentralized; therefore, DDoS attacks are mitigated, and cybercriminals have no centralized points to takeout.
· Detection of Malware trying to replicate itself to other nodes, having a decentralized infrastructure enables the verification of data traffic between nodes over a blockchain; thus, malware can be detected and the infected node identified.
· Bad data and bad player detection using verification and sanity checks on data entering and transported on the Eden System.

Using our technology liberates businesses from the constant burden of keeping their data and their customer’s data safe and private. Something that centralized solutions cannot assure, and when we are entering Industry 4.0, where the IoT devices deployment is planned to reach a global level, these security and privacy issues are paramount.

What is the Internet of Everything?

Once presented the advantages of decentralization for cybersecurity and understanding that the Internet of Everything (IoE) is a relatively new technology. We give you an overview of this new technological approach that comes naturally to better implementing IoT devices on a global scale. In this sense, IoE is the technology that interconnects intelligently the data produced by devices, machines, sensors, people, etc.

To understand the functioning of IoE, we can say that there are four fundamental pillars in which it works to achieve the interconnection required. These are:

· People — The innovations of technology that have created wearables and the growing adoption are forming a massive generation of data by people. An injection of data that IoE, with the power of, e.g., AI algorithms, will be able to analyze and thus, “understand” human issues. Delivering relevant and specific information according to the people’s personal or business needs, helping them to make decisive decision-making, to reach optimal living standards or business goals.
· Things — This is a prolongation of IoT devices where network connectivity can be everywhere, from a pipe having integrity sensors to a smart water meter detecting leaks by analyzing deviations from regular water usage patterns. Giving IoT another access point to output and input data on their real-time status and send it to the needed destination across the network, resulting in a more dynamic data flow.
· Process — Having such a vast amount of data requires better processing techniques that, with IoE, come through artificial intelligence, machine learning, social networks, and other technologies—ensuring that the correct information reaches the right person or machine at the right time. In essence, the goal of IoE processing is to guarantee the best possible usage of Big Data.
· Data — The immense amount of information that IoT devices deployment will generate needs other means of storage, analysis, and processing. Data needs to be refined to offer sustainable computing, data to information, which subsequently urns into priceless knowledge that can be used to favor social engineering, industrial innovation, sustainable procedures, and, in essence, empower intelligent solutions.

Applying this intelligent interconnection based on these four pillars — People, Data, Things, Processes, all industry verticals can thrive. A decentralized architecture orchestrated by IoE is the perfect combination, giving businesses grounds for optimizing management, storage, and customer satisfaction. Following, we present examples of the advantages of an IoE decentralized orchestration like Eden System in various industry verticals.

IoE benefits for Logistics

The logistic industry can benefit from implementing IoE at virtually any step, from warehouses and sorting facilities to (air)ports and service stations. For example, the use of sensor arrays and knowledge based-AI port management software at seaports can lead to multi-million-dollar savings due to optimization:

· Docking and loading/unloading operations.
· Predictive equipment maintenance.
· Automation of warehouse processes.

IoE advantages in healthcare

The healthcare industry is another vertical where IoE advantages can be exponential; hospitals' connected traffic-management system offers first responders a quick alert and provides the best route to transfer patients to hospitals. Automation can also be very effective in surgery rooms, intensive care units, or medical labs. Consumers can also benefit from connections to:

· Home care.
· Assisted living facilities.
· Personal healthcare/fitness systems.

IoE for supply chain management

Adding IoE to a supply chain management system can provide insightful information for customers to know where their products are. It is vital for degradable foods, cold-sensitive foods, and medical suppliers and chemicals. IoE chain management solutions will, in a fully automatic mode, help:

· Streamline processes.
· Minimize operational delays.
· Offer clients insightful visibility.
· Align supply and demand.

Other obvious usages where IoE can be a massive asset are traffic control, in connection with healthcare, as mentioned above, and the consolidation of Smart Homes and Smart Cities. A reality that comes through the implementation of decentralized infrastructures that are not only secure but offer cost-efficient solutions and computing sustainability through data refinement.

Want to learn more about our Eden System? If so, contact our team of experts or continue reading our Cyber Strategy Planning

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